Provided by our program at ETMC Jacksonville
*An expecting mother may feel all the following symptoms or only one*
FIRST TRIMESTER (the first 13 weeks of pregnancy)
Signs and symptoms:
- Frequent urination
- "Morning sickness"
- Excessive salivation
- Heartburn, indigestion, bloating
- Food aversions or cravings
- Breast changes: fullness, tenderness, darkening of the areola
- Mood swings
- Occasional headaches and dizziness
- Changes in appetite
- Schedule first prenatal visit as soon as pregnancy is confirmed.
- For morning sickness:
- Eat a diet high in protein and carbohydrates, both of which fight nausea.
- Drink plenty of fluids to replenish fluid loss. If fluids make you more nauseated, eat foods with high water content such as fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Do not take any medications for nausea unless prescribed by your doctor.
- Avoid the sight, smell, and taste of foods that make you feel queasy.
- Eat small, more frequent meals. Carry nutritious snacks in your purse.
- Eat before nausea strikes.
- Greet the morning slowly- rushing (jumping out of bed) tends to aggravate nausea.
- For breast tenderness and fullness: wear a good, supportive bra. (sports bra, preferably)
- For heartburn:
- Do not smoke.
- Avoid fatty and spicy foods.
- Sleep with the head of your bed slightly elevated.
- For constipation:
- Eat more fiber. (whole grains and fresh fruits and vegetables)
- Again, drink plenty of fluids.
- By week six
- The neural tube which becomes the brain and spinal cord has begun to develop
- Internal organs (lungs, digestive system, kidneys) begin to appear
- By the end of the first trimester
- The baby is now called a fetus
- Weight: one ounce
- Length: three inches
- Distinct facial features present.
- Clearly definable arms, legs, fingers, and toes.
- Sex organs now begin to differentiate into male or female genitals.
- The circulatory and urinary systems are now operating
- Arm and leg buds begin to form
(13-26 weeks of pregnancy)Signs and symptoms:
- Increased thickness around waist and hips
- Increased breast size
- Nasal congestion and/or nose bleeds
- Hemorrhoids and/or varicose veins
- Development of stretch marks
- "Mask of pregnancy": darkening of the pigment in the face
- Less fatigue
- Heartburn and indigestion
- Increased appetite
- Fetal movement
- For nasal congestion: Use a humidifier.
- For hemorrhoids: (With proper care, these should disappear after delivery.)
- Avoid constipation.
- Sleep on your side. This takes pressure off the rectal veins.
- Avoid long hours of standing.
- Apply witch hazel pads to the area.
- Keep the area clean.
- Avoid straining on the toilet.
- Fine, downy hair covers the thin skin of the baby.
- At 24 weeks, the fetus is almost completely formed and is considered viable (able to survive). At this point, the major milestone left for the baby is lung development.
- Skin is also covered with a thick lotion called vernix.
- At the end of the second trimester, the baby is able to hear sounds and be aware of small amounts of light.
- Weight at 26 weeks: approximately 1 � pounds.
(27-40 weeks of pregnancy)Signs and symptoms:
- Braxton-Hicks contractions or "false" labor: periodic tightening of the uterus causing abdominal cramping or low back pain.
- Shortness of breath
- Difficulty sleeping
- Backache and lack of coordination
- For false labor: Take extra strength Tylenol as prescribed on the label and a warm tub bath. Have significant other massage lower back.
- During the next few weeks, your unborn child will be busy with laying down fat under the skin and with lung development.
- Hiccups are common during this time.
- By 37 weeks gestation, the baby is considered to be full term with adequate maturity to survive outside the mother's womb.